General Information About Turkish Court System
The court system in Turkey is composed of two distinct sections:
- The Judicial Courts in Turkey;
- The Administrative Courts in Turkey.
The Judicial Courts are divided into two sections:
- The Civil Courts in Turkey;
- The Criminal Courts In Turkey.
Other special purpose courts, such as the Constitutional Court and Military Courts are usually less relevant for foreign investment.
Civil Courts In Turkey
Civil Courts have subject matter jurisdiction over all civil and commercial law matters unless jurisdiction is specifically allocated to another court.
Turkish Civil Courts cover family law, inheritance and labor law disputes. Civil Courts of first instance include the courts of general jurisdiction, which are located in each administrative district of Turkey, and special courts of first instance, such as employment courts, which specialize in specific types of civil law matters, or special enforcement review courts that specialize in summary judgement cases in those districts in which they are formed.
Criminal Courts In Turkey
Criminal Courts have subject matter jurisdiction over all criminal matters unless jurisdiction over all criminal matters unless jurisdiction is specifically allocated to another court. Criminal Courts of the first instance include courts of general jurisdiction in each administrative district in Turkey and special courts of the first instance, such as state security courts and juvenile courts.
Administrative Courts In Turkey
Administrative Courts have subject matter jurisdiction over all administrative matters unless jurisdiction is specifically allocated to another court.
Actions against administrative agencies relating to their administrative authority (but not commercial acts of those agencies) are reviewed by administrative courts. Tax disputes are a common area covered by administrative courts. Disputes relating to the provision of public services by concessionaries are subject to the administrative courts unless arbitration has been agreed. Recent amendments to the Constitution were required to enable jurisdiction of those disputes to be brought to arbitration, where agreed. The Council of State is the highest appeals court for administrative matters.